Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Gereja Katedral Jakarta

Jakarta Cathedral Church (official name: Santa Maria Patron Appointed To Heaven, De Kerk van Onze Lieve Vrouwe ten Hemelopneming) is a church in Jakarta. This church building was inaugurated in 1901 and built with the neo-gothic architecture of Europe, which is a very common architecture used to build a church building a few centuries ago.

The present church was designed and initiated by PastorAntonius Dijkmans and laying of first stone by Provicaris Carolus Wenneker. This work was later continued by Cuypers-Hulswit when Dijkmans can not continue, and then inaugurated and blessed on 21 April 1901 by Msgr. Edmundus Sybradus Luypen, SJ, Vicar Apostolic Jakarta.

Cathedral as we know it really is not the original church building in that place, because the original cathedral was inaugurated in February 1810, but on July 27, 1826 Church building was burned along with 180 houses in the surrounding population. Then on May 31, 1890 in the sunny weather, it was the church had collapsed.
1807 - 1826

With the political changes in the Netherlands in particular an increase in the throne of King Lodewijk, a Catholic, brought a positive enough influence. Religious freedom began to be recognized government. On 08 Mei 1807 leaders in the Roman Catholic church approved of Louis Napoleon to establish Dutch ApostolikHindia Prefecture. Apostolic Prefecture is an area of the shelter of the Catholic Church directly under the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church, which led not by a bishop, but by an ordinary priest appointed by the Pope, who called the Apostolic Prefect.

On April 4, 1808, two of the Imam from the Netherlands arrived in Jakarta, the Pastor Jacobus Nelissen Pr and Father Lambertus Prisen, Pr. Who was appointed first prefect Apostolic is Pastor J. Nelissen, Pr.

After about two centuries of the eucharist is prohibited in the Dutch East Indies, on April 10, 1808, for the first time in public service was held in Batavia at home FCH Assmuss Doctor, head of Public Health at the time. Doctor Assmuss together with some friends managed to gather some people and most of the soldiers. Mass simple ceremony took place with a less comprehensive. The second priest to temporarily stay at home Assmuss doctor.

In May, the pastor had moved into the house the government lent the bamboo for use as a temporary center of Catholic activities. Located in a residential troops in the southwest corner Buffelsveld or Lapangan Banteng (now roughly between street officers and road Pejambon, on land currently occupied by the Ministry of Religious Affairs). Starting May 15, 1808, the celebration of Holy Mass began to be held here, so this house does not just become the parish church but also the first emergency for Catholics in Jakarta. At that time the Governing Body has established the Church and Papa Fund, which consists of the Apostolic Prefect J. Nelissen as chairman, with members Chevreux Le Grevisse, Fils, Bauer and Liesart.

During the year 1808, they baptize 14 people, which is an adult Eastern European descent, eighth child of an affair, including four whose mother was a slave status, and only five children of those couples the legal parent marital status.

Because it is necessary that there is a house of worship that can be used to collect the people, pada2 February 1810, Pastor J. Nelissen, Pr a donation of a chapel of the Governor-General Herman Meestre Daendels, a simple chapel located on the roadside Kenanga, in Senen area, toward the Palace Weltevreden (now the Gatot Subroto Army Hospital). The chapel was built by Cornelis Chasteleijn (+ 1714) and previously used by the Protestant congregation who spoke on the day of the Malays and used as a school. This chapel is the gift of the following Gubernemen all its contents, including 26 seats and an organ that can not be used. Because the building conditions that are less worthy, Father Nelissen immediately mobilize some people to renovate. All of this work was entrusted to the employer under the supervision Tjung Sun Jongkind, architect, on behalf of the Church Council. The chapel is at the Catholic Church I in Batavia. In the same month, the first Catholic Church in Batavia was blessed and chosen as the patron saint Ludovikus. The building was not good but it feels strong enough because it is made of stone and can accommodate 200 people. Near the church building was built a modest rectory made of bamboo.

On May 10, 1812 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, governor of the island of Java, along with his wife Olivia, attended the Church of St. Ludovikus as serani father-mother to a baby who was baptized.

On December 6, 1817, the body of the first Apostolic Prefecture, Monsignor Jacobus Nellisen, who died of TB was interred in the church. Replaced Father Prinsen, Pr which since 1808 served in Semarang. Although Father Prinsen, Pr has become a prefect Apostolic Jakarta that the two, he is more often located in Semarang

On July 27, 1826, a fire broke out in a triangle Senen. Rectory'm melting into ashes along with 180 other houses, a church building while the building is safe but also fragile and can not be used again.
1827 - 1890

At that time, who served as the Commissioner General is Leonardus Petrus Josephus Burggraaf Du Bus de Ghisignies, an aristocrat who is also Catholic, came from the area Vlaaderen in Belgium. He has full authority in Batavia, as well as higher powers of a Governor-General. During office Du Bus De Ghisignies, 1825-1830, the Indonesian Catholic Church can breathe. He is Catholic and very concerned about the needs of the people. He also was instrumental in creating the freedom of religious life in Batavia at that time. One of Regeringsreglement service is made, in article 97 is placed: "The implementation of all religions get government protection". He also urged for immediate Prinsen Father settled in Jakarta.

Seeing the urgent needs of the people going to the church sanctuary, a place Ghisignies effort to establish a new church. He gave the Council an opportunity to buy the Cathedral Church of parcels of the former palace of Governor-General on the corner of the west / north Lapangan Banteng (formerly Waterlooplein), who was used as offices by the Department of Defense. At that time, the land above the building's former residence standing army commander General de Kock. Catholics then given the opportunity to buy a big house with the price of 20,000 guilders. Church officials have reduced the price of 10,000 guilders and loans from the government for 8000 guilders to be paid for 1 year without interest.

In 1826 Ghisignies ordered Ir. Tromp to finish "The White House" which begins by Daendels (1809) and the Finance Ministry is now used in Lapangan Banteng. Ir. Tromp also asked to build official residence for the commander of the Armed Forces (1830) and is now known as Pancasila Building on Jl. Pejambon. Third order in Ir. Tromp is to design the first Catholic Church in Batavia. Place is the Cathedral Church is now used.

At the urging of Commissioner-General Du Bus De Ghisignies, Ir. Tromp designing a new church along the cross-shaped 33 x 17 meters. Space is made semi-circular altar, was the long main room 6 pole mounted. The style is patterned baroque-gothic-classicism; neogotik patterned window, a baroque facade, pilasters and two buildings either side klasisistis print. The tower looks a bit short and decorated with a small dome over it. Thus, the building style is called eklektisistis. Plus two buildings flanking the rectory to the church on either side and a row of rooms behind. Apparently the draft Ir. Tromp require substantial funding and beyond the financial ability of the church at that time. So this design was never implemented.

Therefore, the building earned the Catholics, the proposal of Ir. Tromp reformed so that can be used for the church. This building is actually a building with a large space between two rows of pillars. On both sides of the aisle in length equipped with. In the middle of the roof construction of a six-square turrets. In the east part of the original house will be retained for the priest's residence and in the west to Koster. His great altar was a gift from the Commissioner General du Bus Ghisignies. The church is 35 meters long and 17 meters wide on 6 November 1829 was blessed by Monseigneur Prinsen and named Saint Mary of the Assumption.

The church was enough to help the priests in the mission ministry in Batavia. The people who attended more and more. For the first time, on May 8, 1834, four indigenous Javanese people baptized in this church.

Over time, the church has experienced a lot of damage. Improvements are made only patched it. Later in the year 1859 held a significant renovation. According to the observation of a master builder, the tower is in the middle of the roof is the cause of the damage and leakage. The tower is too heavy for the roof structure of the church, so that pressing the wall and cause leaks everywhere. Therefore proposed to dismantle the small tower and replace it with a new tower located above the entrance, to the west. Finally on May 31, 1880 this church began to function again after a complete renovation.

Nearly ten years later, April 9, 1890, found the parts of the church that began damaged, A pile of lime and sand were scattered near a pillar. This situation is quite concerned about the priests, especially Father Kortenhorst that morning had stepped on a pile of lime and sand. On the same day around pk. 09.00 am, Pastor and Pastor Kortenhorst check Luypen church situation. One of the pillars seems worried. In circumstances pk.10.30 pillars look worse and more apprehensive. Many chalk started off again. Not long later, when the priests entered the sacristy, the church building collapsed with a terrible roar. Dust covered the entire yard so that people can not see more than five steps. Hours when it was 10:45 o'clock in the morning. The day was just 3 days after the celebration of Easter.

When the dust had begun to fall, the destruction of the church began to appear clearly. The roof was open. Before this event, there are still 68 benches made of teak and now lives 10, the rest badly damaged. In addition, the still standing intact was the altar, the court of priests and the sacristy and the tower.

The condition of the church when it is severe and does not allow for the implementation of the service. For a while Mass was held in the carriage garage customized functionality to the church of emergency.
1891 - 1901

The priests and people began to seek a new church built. Dated 1 November 1890 signed a contract between Monseigneur Claessens and entrepreneurs Leykam of purchase of three million bricks. Size must be in accordance with the attached sample and the price is set 2.2 and 2.5 cents a. Starting on December 1, 1890, every month should be submitted 70,000 bricks of fruit-burning companies. The number of cracked bricks and broken should not exceed 10%. From this condition it is clear that the construction of the church done more professionally.

Appointees and are believed to be a planner and architect of this church building is Pastor Anthony Dijkmans, SJ, a builder who had attended courses in ecclesiastical architecture Violet-le-Duc in Paris, France and the Netherlands Cuypers. Dijkmans SJ Father Antony who had arrived in Jakarta two years before the church collapsed, previously had built two churches in the Netherlands. He also designed and built the chapel Susteran Jl. Postal 2, in the year 1891.

In mid-1891 began to be laying the first stone to start construction of the church. After about a year to walk the construction had to be stopped due to lack of fees. In addition, in the year 1894 Father Anthony Dijkmans, SJ must be returned to the Netherlands because of illness and eventually died in 1922. Traffic and construction work carried out in the mass remains the rectory garage.

The new bishop, Mgr E.S. Luypen SJ (1898-1923) to raise funds in the Netherlands and Engineers MJ Hulswit start building again. Stone "first" laid and blessed on January 16, 1899, as a sign of the beginning of construction of this church again. In November, the roof beams in pairs.

To support the development funds of the church, people do not stay silent. The Governing Body of the Church with the congregation twice a sweepstakes (loterai), one time before pelatakan foundation, and before the start of development. Because of subsidies from the government is rejected, then closed the deficiency bonds issued for Fl 50.000, - and the collection of alms among Catholics and welcome improvement.

In addition to the new architecture, there is also a contractor named van Schaik. As for Ir. van Es represent the Governing Body of the Church as bouwheer. Construction of a second iron tower was drawn and done by Ir. van Es alone.

11 years after the decision of the Governing Body of the Church, 10 years after laying the first stone, the church completed. Please note that during 7 years of church construction halted due to run out of funds, so the actual construction only lasted 3 years.

"De Kerk van Onze Lieve Vrowe about Hemelopneming - Saint Mary's Assumption to Heaven" was inaugurated and blessed by Msgr. Edmundus Sybradus Luypen, SJ, a Vicar Apostolic Jakarta on 21April 1901. In the inauguration ceremony was attended by many officials and people. Mgr Luypen prayed briefly before the statue of Mary that there are between the two main doors, and promptly at 08.00 am, Mgr. Luypen started circling around the church and sprinkled with holy water as he accompanied the choir of Santa Caecilian, who on 22 November 1865 date established by the CGF Arcken can. The procession consisted of the cross bearer, altar boys, the priests and finally the Vicar Apostolic. In front of the altar all knelt and sang the litany of All Saints. Pontifical High Mass with the liturgy of the ancient noble nan held by the Bishop, accompanied by five priests. Choir under the leadership of Santa Caecilian Toebosch father and singing to the accompaniment of organ compositions Mass. Benoit.

Started since the main church in Jakarta that deserve to be called the Cathedral, because in it there is cathedra, ie the See Bishop.
1901 - present

These events and more than 100 colors in this cathedral church establishment. In the year 1924 for the first time a bishop ordained in the Cathedral Church, which Mgr A. Van Velsen SJ and next year's first session Wali-wali Assembly Indonesian Church Cathedral was held in the rectory.

Cardinal Agaginian, an Armenian, visited Jakarta in 1959 and received with great fanfare by the Church and the leadership of the State of RI. Conversation with the bishops and superiors of work orders throughout Indonesia is important for the future. The result was announced in 1961: the Church in Indonesia is not the mission again, but the Church in its own section.

Vicar Apostolic Jakarta, Mgr. Djajsepoetra Adrian, who was ordained at the Cathedral of Jakarta by the Ambassador of the Vatican on April 23, 1953, ten years years later was appointed archbishop. At that time, 1962, the Archdiocese of Jakarta includes 14 Parishes with the number of 32,599 people. Ecclesiastical province of Jakarta diocese also covers other Diocese of Diocese of Bogor and Bandung.

In the year 1963/1965 Indonesian bishops participated in Vatican II konsli, which brought many changes in the pastoral and liturgical church. When the bishop was still in Rome, in Jakarta burst G30S PKI, so that the Cathedral should be kept by the Catholic Youth and the army.

Another exciting event for the people of Jakarta was the visit of Pope Paul VI (1970) and Pope John Paul II (1989) to Indonesia which was welcomed by Msgr Leo Soekoto. The cult was celebrated with great fanfare by Pope Paul VI with a lot of Bishop in the Cathedral. At the time the visit of Pope John Paul II in the Archdiocese of Jakarta in progress First Synod.

Along with the 100 this year, in 1988 carried out restoration work to repair the damage and clean the moss and repainting. One also built the rectory and building a new convention center on the back of the church. On August 13, 1988, purnakarya restoration of the Cathedral Church was inaugurated by Mr. Soepardjo Roestam which at the time he served as Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare of Indonesia, was present to represent President Suharto. The event marked the organ with a concert by the father Hub Wolfs, organist of the basilica in the town of St. Servatius Maastrich and by Father Alfons Kurris Pr, professor at the conservatory in the same city. Msgr Leo Soekoto orqel bless the new pipe and majestic, an organ which has 15 registers and equipped with 1000 pipes. Second intermittent professional organic made a classic works, which by composers such as Vivaldi, Bach and Cesar Frank created specifically for the royal instruments.

In the year 2002 also had done the cleaning and repainting the exterior wall of the building at the Cathedral Church for the moss to grow vines on the wall.

When this building was first built, officials genie (army engineer) then assess the church building which cost 628,000 guilders PA Dijkmans design such as "building an overly strong" considering the building structure and material used really the best option. So until now - 100 years later - the main Catholic church in Jakarta remained standing upright.

Location: Jl. Cathedrals, Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Central Jakarta

Source: http://id.wikipedia.org

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