Saturday, April 23, 2011

Kayan Mentarang National Park

KMNP (TNKM) was first established in 1980 as a nature reserve by the Minister of Agriculture of Indonesia. Then in 1996, at the urging of local communities (indigenous) and the recommendations of the WWF, this area changed its status to National Park for local community interests can be accommodated. TNKM have primary and secondary forest areas largest remaining old on the island of Borneo and Southeast Asia. Kayan Mentarang name taken from the two important river names in the national park, the Kayan River in the south and north of the River Mentarang. Other sources mention that the name was taken from the name of the plateau / plateau in the local mountains named Apau Kayan vast stretches (Mentarang) from the area Datadian / Long Kayan Apau Ping south through the middle and north of Long Bawan. With a land area of about 1.35 million hectares, this forest expanse stretching across the northern part of East Kalimantan Province, precisely in Malinau Regency, Regency Nunukan and Bulungan, directly adjacent to the Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia. Most of the areas included in the district of Malinau and partly included in Nunukan district. Tourism potential in KMNP is Pujungan Hulu, Hulu and Hulu Krayan Kayan / Datadian. Regions TNKM situated at an altitude between 200 meters to about ± 2,500 m above sea level, covers the lowland valleys, high mountain plains and rugged mountains that form clusters of various sedimentary and volcanic formations.

High rates of forest destruction in the forests of Borneo and many parts of the switching function, causing TNKM region becomes very special and deserve high priority in terms of biodiversity conservation and community culture that remains.


The main types are the dipterocarp forests, Fagaceae, Myrtaceae forest or oak forest, mountain forest middle level and high (above 1,000 m above sea level), agathis forest, heath forest, swamp forests which are limited in extent, as well as a special type " moss forest "dipuncak-peaks above 1,500 m altitude above sea level. In addition, there are also various types of secondary forest. Forests in areas along the river Bahau is hilly forest with steep cliffs that are very difficult to climb from the riverbank. Forests in this region has so many waterfalls of various sizes, the flow stream waterfall which is small enough to have a sloping riverbank and used by communities to enter the forest in this region. Pujungan also known as the area where the sun never rises and never sank because it is often covered by fog or clouds. However, pendarnya sunlight from behind the fog or cloud is able to make our skin red hot on fire without feeling hot sun because the temperature cold enough in this area. Can imagine the cold temperatures in the upstream region Ping Apau Pujungan.

Not like in general stream originating from a spring at the headwaters of the mountains which then flows to the downstream branch out to go to the estuaries, rivers in the Kayan Mentarang national park comes from the many springs in many mountainous areas and flow upstream into 1 large river leading to the downstream up to the estuary. In the southern region a national park there Kayan river which empties after splitting sub-district of Tanjung Selor and Tanjung Palas, came from dozens of springs in the upper Kayan and upstream Pujungan. Koala intersection is the area between the rivers meeting Bahau and Kayan river is the boundary region Bulungan and Malinau district. Kayan river flows in the area of ​​Tanjung Selor very calm and started to flare up when entering the territory of Long Lejau. Bahau river flow varies greatly from the peace that does not have current up to turmoil rafting. Dayak community to give the name of the river upstream Pujungan Bahau as sei giram which means that fast-flowing rocky river rapids. And people in this area is the boat drivers are hand-picked and compact. Bahau River at Long Aran region has the lowest water levels and often leads to the boatmen and the local police work together to pull a boat that had run aground length can reach up to 20 meters was a gang. Profile of the rocks in both rivers also differs, 2 images on the left is the profile of rocks found on the Kayan river start to Simpang Tanjung Selor Koala, 2 images on the right is the profile of the rocks in the river Bahau encountered since the area until upstream Pujungan Simpang Koala.

Flora species that are reported in this region of which include 500 species of orchids and at least 25 species of rattan. It also has managed inventory 277 species of birds including 11 species new to Borneo and Indonesia, 19 species and 12 endemic species are nearly extinct. Some interesting species of which are 7 types of hornbills, Kuau King, Sepindan Borneo and the types of King Prawn. TNKM also a habitat for many protected species such as banteng (Bos javanicus), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), pangolin (Manis javanica), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor). In certain seasons on the prairie in the Upper River Bahau, gathered a herd bull that comes from the surrounding forest area and become an interesting sight to behold.

Cultural Diversity

In and around TNKM found diverse cultures is a valuable cultural heritage to be preserved. Around 21,000 people from various ethnic and language subgroup, known as the Dayak tribe, living in and around national parks. Dayak community, such as the Kenyah, Kayan, Lundayeh, Tagel, Saben and Punan, Badeng, Hyacinths, Makulit, Makasan inhabit about 50 villages that are in the area TNKM.

The discovery of the grave stones in the upper River Pujungan Bahau and the Upper River, which is a relic tribe Ngorek, indicating that at least since around 400 years ago, the Dayak people already inhabiting the region. The most intensive archaeological heritage is estimated as the most important legacy to the island of Borneo.

Communities within the national park area is still heavily dependent on forests as a source of livelihood, such as timber, medicinal plants, and animals hunted. They also sell plants and animals of forest products, because there is little opportunity to get cash. Basically communities manage natural resources traditionally on the basis of species variation. For example, many rice varieties are planted, some types of wood used for building materials, many types of plants used for medicine, and various types of animals hunted.

The high diversity of species are used, will minimize the possibility of earlier types of pressure. Traditional management is basically very consistent with the conservation of forests and wildlife. Unfortunately, traditional or customary rules are often ignored by outsiders who continued to increase to take resources from the region. Rapid change of traditional livelihoods to the economy makes people tempted to ignore the custom.

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