Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Cultural heritage of the Dayak traditions (Kalimantan)

Dayak tribe is the tribal groups living Kalimantan who lived in rural areas, the mountains, and so on. The word itself is Dayak given by the Malays who came to Borneo. Dayak people themselves actually wearing a Dayak mind, because more defined rather negative. In fact, the Dayaks motto is "Ueh Menteng Mammoth", which means someone who has the power of courage, and do not know or refused to give back.
Origin In the years (1977-1978) at the time, the Asian continent and the island of Borneo that are part of the archipelago are still together, which allows the Mongoloid race from asia travel through the plains and arrived in Borneo to the mountains across the mountains now called "Muller-Schwaner '. The Dayaks of Borneo, is the true population. But after the Malays from Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came, they increasingly retreated into.

Not to mention the arrival of the Bugis, Makasar, and Java in the heyday of the Majapahit Kingdom. Dayak tribes living scattered throughout the Borneo in the long span of time, they have spread through rivers up to the downstream and then inhabit the coast of the island of Borneo. This tribe consists of several tribes, each of which has different properties and behavior. 

Dayak tribe has built an empire. In the Dayak oral tradition, often called "Java Nansarunai U┼čak", ie a kingdom Dayak Nansarunai destroyed by the Majapahit, which is estimated to occur between the years 1309-1389 (Fridolin Ukur, 1971). The incident resulted in Dayak tribe driven and scattered, some in the countryside. The next big flow occurred during the Islamic influence of the kingdom of Demak berasala with the entry of traders Malays (around 1608).
Most of the Dayak tribe embraced Islam and no longer recognizes him as the Dayak, but calls himself the Malays or the Banjar. While the Dayak who refuse Islam back down the river, into the interior of Central Kalimantan, residing in areas of Wood Tangi, Amuntai, Margasari, Watang Amandit, Lawas and Labuan Watang Balangan. Sebagain again kept pressed into the jungle. Dayak people Muslims are mostly located in South Kalimantan and some Kotawaringin, one of the Sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar is famous kurat Stomach is actually a Dayak (or Ot Danum Ma'anyan)
Not only from the archipelago, other nations also came to Borneo. Nation Tionghoa estimated start coming to Borneo during the Ming dynasty of 1368-1643. From starch-lettered manuscripts mentioned that the city's first visit is Banjarmasin. But it remains unclear whether the nation came in an era Tionghoa Bajarmasin (under the hegemony of Majapahit) or in the Islamic era.
Arrival of the Tionghoa not result in displacement and the Dayak people have no direct influence as direct as they just trade, especially with the kingdom of Banjar Banjarmasin. They are not directly berniaga the Dayak people. Tionghoa nation heritage is still preserved by some Dayak tribes as malawen dishes, pots (jars) and ceramic equipment.
Since the beginning of the century V Tionghoa nation has arrived at Borneo. In the XV century, King Yung Lo sent a large army to the south (including the archipelago) under the leadership of Ho Chang, and returned to China in 1407, after stopping to Java, Borneo, Malacca, Manila and Solok. In 1750, Sultan Mempawah accept Tionghoa people (from Brunei) who are looking for gold. Tionghoa people are carrying merchandise also include opium, silk, glassware such as plates, cups, bowls and jars (Sarwoto kertodipoero, 1963)
Below are some customs of the Dayak are still preserved to this day, and the supernatural world Dayak tribes in ancient times and today is still strong today. This custom is one of the cultural wealth owned by the Indonesian nation, because at the beginning of Dayak tribes from the interior of Borneo.

* Ceremony Tiwah
The ceremony is the traditional Tiwah Dayak tribe. Tiwah a ceremony held for delivery bones of the dead person to have stumbled on the make. Trip is the sort of place a small house which was built especially for those who had died.
Tiwah ceremony for the Dayak tribe is sacred, in this event before Tiwah bones of a dead person is in between and put into place (trip), many ritual occasions, dance, sound the gong and other entertainment. Until the bones are in place in place (stumbling).

* Supranatural world
Supernatural world for Dayak tribes had been since the first is typical of Dayak culture. Because of this supernatural all foreign people there called the Dayak as man-eaters (cannibals). However, in reality is the tribe Dayak tribes who are peace loving home they are not alone and arbitrarily suppressed. Borneo Dayak supernatural powers of many kinds, for example Manajah Antang. Antang Manajah Dayak is a way to search for clues as to find the existence of a difficult enemy found in the spirits of the ancestors of birds Antang media, anywhere in the search for the enemy will be found.
Red bowl. Red is a medium bowl Dayak unity. Red bowl supply if the Dayak people feel their sovereignty in great danger. "Commander" or often called the Dayak tribe Pangkalima usually issued standby signal or a war of the red bowl in circulated from village to village very quickly. From the looks of everyday people do not know who the commander of the Dayak. He's mediocre, it's just that he has supernatural powers extraordinary. Believe it or not it has knowledge commander could fly immune from anything like bullets, sharp weapons and so on.
Red bowls do not haphazardly distributed. Before release the commander must make a custom event to know when the right time to start a war. In the event that the customary spirit of the ancestors will enter the body and if pangkalima it was pangkalima "Tariu" (ancestral spirits called for to ask for help and declared war) then the Dayak people who hear it will also have the power as commander. Usually people who get sick soul unstable or crazy when they hear tariu.
The people who already possessed by the spirits of the ancestors will be a human and not. So that the blood normally, the heart of the murdered victims will be eaten. If not in an atmosphere of war is never the Dayak people eat. Head beheaded, skinned and stored for ceremonial purposes. Drink blood and eat the heart, the magic will increase. The more enemies killed then the person is more powerful.
Red bowl made of bamboo porch (some say made of clay) which is designed in a circular shape made immediately. To accompany these dishes also provided other equipment such as sweet red jerangau (acorus Calamus) which symbolizes the courage (some would say could be replaced with yellow rice), red chicken feathers for flying, bamboo torch light for torches (some say could be replaced by a matches), sago palm leaf (Metroxylon sagus) for shelter and a leather strap kepuak knot as a symbol of unity. Equipment had been packed in a bowl of bamboo and draped with red cloth.
According to the story of hereditary red bowl first circulated when the war against Japan once. Then it came again when the expulsion of Tionghoa from Dayak areas in 1967. expulsion of the Dayak people instead Tionghoa inter-ethnic war but more political content. Because at that time Indonesia's confrontation with Malaysia.
According to Dayak beliefs, especially the hinterland of Borneo that are passed from mouth to mouth, from grandmother to father, from father to son, until now an unwritten lead to more or less than the truth, that the origins of ancestors of the Dayaks was derived from the seventh heaven to this world with "Palangka boelau" (Palangka means holy, clean, a shelf, a stretcher that is holy, holy yoke of gold down from the sky, often also referred to "rack or Kalangkang").

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